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Muslimanska Braca su politicki pokret koji je verovao da se bilo koja muslimanska zemlja moze izboriti protiv stranih okupatora i porobljivaca, ako se izbori za politicku vlast. To se zove "politicki islam". Bez obzira na istovetno ime u raznim zemljama, oni NISU PAN-ISLAMISTICKI, vec nacionalisticki. Program im je baziran na sekularnim pitanjima, ne pitanjima religije.
Mursi je stavio odredbu u Ustav koja zahjeva da bilo koji zakon koji uvodi odredbe Serijata, mora da se prvo odobri od EGIPATSKOG SUNI ISLAMSKOG AUTORITETA, AL-AZHAR. A to znaci, da NACIONALNI EGIPATSKI SUNI ISLAM IMA PRAVO DA PONISTI ZAKONE AKO SU U SKLADU SA VAHABIZMOM, ALI NE U SKLADU SA EGIPATSKIM SUNITSKIM SERIJATOM. To je SUSTINA sukoba Salafizma, i Muslimanske Brace.
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Small Wars Journal The Erosion of Noncombatant Immunity within Al Qaeda Carl J. Ciovacco Since its inception, al Qaeda’s treatment of noncombatant immunity has migrated from full observance to complete disregard. In just over a decade, al Qaeda transitioned from basing entire operations on the inviolable nature of noncombatant immunity to specifically targeting noncombatants. From 1991 until 2002, al Qaeda evolved through five distinct phases in its observance of noncombatant immunity. These phases transition from Phase One’s complete respect for noncombatants to Phase Five’s intentional targeting of millions of noncombatants with weapons of mass destruction. More recently, however, al Qaeda appears to be taking stock of the harm that targeting noncombatants is having on its cause. This paper will provide a phased analysis of how al Qaeda’s provision of noncombatant immunity disintegrated over time and why it may be returning today. This progression of thought and action concerning noncombatants serves as a roadmap by which to understand how and why al Qaeda made these ideological leaps. The Erosion of Noncombatant Immunity within Al Qaeda Since its inception, al Qaeda’s treatment of noncombatant immunity has migrated from full observance to complete disregard. In its evolving mission from fighting the Soviets in Afghanistan in the 1980s, to apostate Muslim regimes in the 1990s, to its current fight against the West, it has employed a variety of tactics in its conduct of war. Against the Soviets and Muslim regimes of Middle East, Northern Africa, and South East Asia, al Qaeda limited its use of force to combatants and government officials. However, in its current fight against the West, and more specifically America, it has shifted its tactics to the targeted killing of noncombatants. What has caused this great shift and departure from past deference to noncombatant immunity? In just over a decade, al Qaeda transitioned from basing entire operations on the inviolable nature of noncombatant immunity to specifically targeting noncombatants. From 1991 until 2002, al Qaeda evolved through five distinct phases in its observance of noncombatant immunity. These phases transition from Phase One’s complete respect for noncombatants to Phase Five’s intentional targeting of millions of noncombatants with weapons of mass destruction. Fortunately, for the purposes of better understanding this phenomenon, al Qaeda has published much of its reasoning behind its actions. Perhaps more than any other warring party in history, al Qaeda has shared its strategy, tactics, views, and even vulnerabilities for the entire world to see in the global media. 1 It is through these rare glimpses into the psyche of al Qaeda that we can better understand why this shift happened. By placing this shift into five finite phases, we can learn more about the driving factors for the erosion of noncombatant immunity within al Qaeda. Background Before diving into the analysis of the five-phase transition of al Qaeda with respect to noncombatant immunity, it would be prudent to briefly explore two background areas: the leader of al Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, and the Islamic Just War ethic. These areas are critical to understanding how bin Laden sees the world and what constraints he operates under when using the cover of Islam for his legitimacy. The contextual importance of understanding the many facets of Islam with respect to war, jihad, and noncombatants cannot be overstated...
Case Study Political Geography and Al Qaeda Terrorism Why do the Islamic fundamentalists in general—and followers of al Qaeda in particular—resort to terrorist tactics against Americans and other Westerners around the globe? This question has haunted Americans since 9/11 and prompted a host of antiterrorist policies throughout the world. Much has been written and spoken on the subject, and more will be written and spoken in the years ahead. Political geography offers a frame of reference to learn about al Qaeda and other militant Islamic groups and their anti-West, anti–U.S. posture. To explore the point of view propounded by Osama bin Laden and others, this case study uses the ﬁve levels of analysis introduced in chapter three, examined here from a geopolitical perspective. The ﬁve levels of analysis are the: 1) international system, 2) regional, 3) state, 4) substate (tribal groups), and 5) individual. From the international system perspective, consider the following historical context of al Qaeda’s militant Islam. Militant Islamic fundamentalists and followers of Islam are heirs to one of the great civilizations of the world. While today’s Arab Muslims and non-Arab Muslims are in a dire crisis of underdevelopment, poverty, and oppression, yesterday’s Arab Empire was larger than the Roman Empire. The Arab Empire ﬂourished during the seventh through thirteenth centuries. It was truly spectacular (Figures 8.9a and 8.9b). Its achievements—in art, literature, architecture, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, trade, and ﬁnance— were profound not only in their time; they left their mark on modern civilization. Moreover, in that era, Muslims, Jews, and Christians coexisted peacefully. Non-Muslims were assured of considerable freedom as well as cultural and intellectual autonomy, as long as they paid a tax. The political geography of the time was dominated by Islam. Then came the eleventh century Crusades, followed by Western colonialism and violent European intervention in the Middle East, creation of the state of Israel in 1948, Western-driven globalization, Westernized greedy rulers and their police states. The twentieth century stands in stark contrast with the glory years of the Arab Empire— and it was an utter disaster from the Arab/Muslim perspective. Elite Middle East rulers, backed by the United States,...
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